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    practical clinical chemistry from scratch

    medical baccground, lab science ack ground,
    Clinical laboratory science consists of various specialties such as clinical

    chemistry, hematology, immunology, microbiology, serology, toxicology

    and pathology

    Clinical Chemistry is an exciting field that combines analytics and

    instrumentation with information technology and management of workflow,

    staff efficiencies and high volume automation. The field is ever-changing

    and demands staff have skills in the methodologies and their limitations,

    technology and troubleshooting equipment, as well as management and ability

    to adapt operations to evolving clinical needs. At the heart, the laboratory is

    a service to the physician providing test results that are critical to diagnosing

    and managing patients. But, the laboratory is also a vital member of the

    healthcare team and gets involved in utilization, operational efficiencies and

    improving patient outcomes.

    course contents

    Introduction to clinical chemistry

    analytes that are measured using clinical chemistry tests

    Types of biologic specimens that may be used for testing

    How the results of tests are interpreted

    Measurement principales

    optical (photometric)

    and electrochemical (potentiometric) – that are most often used to

    determine concentrations of analytes in the clinical chemistry laboratory.

    he difference between an endpoint and a rate reaction

    the principle of potentiometric measurement

    Chemical reactions of analytes produce products that can be detected

    by using optical methods; changes in light absorbed, scattered or

    emitted by these products are used to determine the concentration of

    the analyte.

    2. In potentiometric methods, changes in concentrations of ions are

    sensed as potential differences between two electrodes.

    3. Calibrators, solutions of known concentration, are used to establish the

    relationship between the magnitude of an optical or electrical signal

    and the corresponding concentration of analyte.

    Quantitation of routine chemistry analytes is typically based on one

    of two measurement principles – measurement of light (photometry

    or spectrophotometry) or measurement of electrochemical potential

    (potentiometry). There are many variations of photometry and potentiometry, but all have in common that the signal

    the amount of light or electrical voltage

    is predictably related to the amount of analyte

    in solution.

    Accurate test result is our aim

    Distinguish between precision and accuracy

    • Describe how calibrator values are assigned

    • Identify the roles of proficiency testing (PT)/external quality assurance (EQA)

    and quality control testing programs in ensuring accuracy of test results

    1. Laboratory tests must meet precision and accuracy standards.

    2. Accuracy, closeness to a true value, depends on a valid calibration process.

    3. Calibrator value assignment is linked to a certified reference material,

    a recognized reference method or a consensus process that provides


    4. Laboratories use quality control and proficiency testing to monitor the

    precision and accuracy of test methods.

    Test for analytes in amixtures

    Measurement of one substance when it is part of a complex mixture of substances

    provides special challenges. A measurement method that works well for determining

    the amount of an analyte in a relatively pure form may be completely unsatisfactory

    when the analyte is in a mixture of cells, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and trace

    minerals. Methods for the analysis of analytes in complex biologic mixtures require

    special approaches to minimize or eliminate interference from other substances. Some

    of the approaches frequently used in clinical chemistry such as blanking, rate methods,

    pretreatment, reagent specificity and ion-selective electrodes are described in more

    detail in the following sections.

    where you can find errors?

    preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical errors

    1. Patient preparation and proper collection and handling of specimens are

    important preanalytical steps to ensure the validity of a test result.

    2. Hemolysis, icterus and lipemia (HIL) are three of the most common sources

    of interfering substances found in blood serum and plasma samples.

    • Hemolyisis refers to color of hemoglobin released from destroyed red blood cells

    • Icterus refers to color from bilirubin

    • Lipemia refers to turbidity from high lipid concentrations, usually triglycerides

    If unrecognized, their presence may cause overestimation or underestimation of

    the analyte concentration.

    3. Automated instrumentation includes numerous algorithms to detect potential

    sources of error and alert the operator.

    common clinical chemistry tests

    1. Clinical chemistry tests measure a wide variety of analytes that reflect many

    different organ systems and diseases.

    2. Some test results are specific indicators for a single organ system or disease;

    others are general indicators of a disease or disorder, but do not pinpoint the

    specific organ or disease process.

    3. Tests are performed for different reasons. Some tests help diagnose a disease,

    others monitor the course of the disease progression or effectiveness of

    therapy, and still others are used to screen for risk of developing a disease.

    Hundreds of compounds, molecules and ions circulate in body fluids. Many of

    these can be measured by tests used in clinical chemistry laboratories. These tests

    are valuable in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease.

    some disases

    Diabets millitus

    choronic kidney failure

    cardiac heart diseases biomarkers


    Who this course is for:
    Medical lab technologist, medical medical students, lab technicians,physcians,any one intested in lab sciences

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